The daily management level of chicks is related to the hatching rate of chicks and the production efficiency of the farm. The winter climate is cold, the environmental conditions are poor, and the immunity of the chicks is low. The daily management of chickens in winter should be strengthened, and attention should be paid to preventing cold and keeping warm, strengthening immunity, feeding scientifically, and improving chicks. increase the breeding rate and increase the economic benefits of raising chickens. Therefore, this issue introduces a group of daily management techniques for winter chicks for farmers’ reference.
The chicken house is generally heated by a stove, but a chimney must be installed to prevent gas poisoning. The chimney can be appropriately extended according to the situation, so as to facilitate sufficient heat dissipation and save energy. Lighting time has a great influence on the growth rate of chickens. In addition to daily natural light, artificial lighting equipment should be prepared. Therefore, 2 lighting lines should be installed in the chicken house, and a lamp head should be installed every 3 meters, so that there is one light bulb for every 20 square meters of area, and the height should be 2 meters away from the ground. Generally, incandescent lamps are used. Equipped with necessary cleaning and disinfection equipment, such as pressure washer and disinfection sprayer.
The net frame should be sturdy and durable, the net bed should be smooth and flat, and the length depends on the length of the chicken house. The whole net bed does not need to be used in the chick stage. The entire net bed can be separated into several separate chicken houses with plastic sheets, and only part of the net bed is used. Later, the use area will be gradually expanded as the chicks grow to meet the density requirements. Drinking water and feeding equipment should be sufficient to ensure that the chicks drink water and eat food. The general brooding stage requires one drinker and feeder for every 50 chicks, and one for every 30 chicks after 20 days of age.
12 to 15 days before entering the chicks, clean the manure of the chicken house, clean the drinking fountains and feeders, rinse the walls, roof, net bed, floor, etc. of the chicken house with a high-pressure water gun, and check and maintain the equipment of the chicken house; 9 to 11 days before entering the chicks For the first drug disinfection of the chicken house, including net beds, floors, drinking fountains, feeders, etc., doors and windows and ventilation openings should be closed during disinfection, windows should be opened for ventilation after 10 hours, and doors and windows should be closed after 3 to 4 hours of ventilation. At the same time, the drinking fountain and feeder are soaked and disinfected with disinfectant; the second disinfection is carried out 4 to 6 days before entering the chicks, and the 40% formaldehyde aqueous solution 300 times liquid can be used for spray disinfection. Check the temperature before disinfection, so that the temperature of the chicken house reaches 26 Above ℃, the humidity is above 80%, the disinfection should be thorough, no dead ends are left, and the doors and windows should be closed for more than 36 hours after disinfection, and then open for ventilation for not less than 24 hours; The beds are well spaced and separated according to the stocking density of 30 to 40 per square meter in the first week of the brooding period. Pre-warming (preheating the walls and floors) and pre-humidification should be carried out 3 days before the chicks in winter, and the pre-warming temperature should be above 35°C. At the same time, a layer of cardboard is placed on the mesh bed to prevent the chicks from getting cold. After the pre-warming and pre-wetting are completed, the chicks can be entered.
Adhere to the principle of “prevention first, treatment supplemented, and prevention more important than cure”, especially some serious infectious diseases caused by viruses, should be immunized regularly. 1-day-old, attenuated Marek’s disease vaccine was injected subcutaneously; 7-day-old Newcastle disease clone 30 or IV vaccine was administered intranasally and 0.25 ml of inactivated Newcastle disease oil-emulsion vaccine was injected simultaneously; 10-day-old infectious bronchitis, renal bronchitis Drinking water for dual vaccine; 14-day-old bursal polyvalent vaccine drinking water; 21-day-old, chicken pox thorn seed; 24-day-old, bursal vaccine drinking water; 30-day-old, Newcastle disease IV line or clone 30 secondary immunity; 35 Days of age, infectious bronchitis, and renal abscess second immunity. The above immunization procedures are not fixed, and farmers can increase or decrease a certain immunization according to the local epidemic situation.
In the process of chicken disease prevention and control, preventive medicine is an indispensable part. For chickens under 14 days of age, the main purpose is to prevent and control pullorum, and 0.2% dysentery can be added to the feed, or chloramphenicol, enrofloxacin, etc. ; After 15 days of age, focus on preventing coccidiosis, and you can use amprolium, diclazuril, and clodipidine alternately. If there is a serious epidemic in the local area, drug prevention should also be carried out. Viralin and some antiviral Chinese herbal medicines can be used for viral infectious diseases, but antibiotics must be used at the same time to prevent secondary infection.
The first stage
1-2 day old chicks should be put into the chicken house as soon as possible, and should not be placed on the net bed immediately after entering the house. On the net bed. After the immunization is completed, the chicks are given water for the first time. For the first week of drinking, the chicks are required to use warm water at about 20°C, and add a variety of vitamins to the water. Keep the water enough to ensure that every chick can drink water.
The chicks eat for the first time. Before eating, they drink water once with 40,000 IU potassium permanganate solution for disinfection and excretion of meconium to clean the intestines. After 3 hours of drinking water for the first time, you can feed the feed. The feed should be made of special feed for chicks. At the beginning, feed 5 to 6 times a day. For weak chickens, feed it once at night, and then gradually change to every 3 to 4 times a day. The amount of feed for the chicks should be mastered according to the actual feeding situation. The feeding must be done regularly, quantitatively, and qualitatively, and clean drinking water must be maintained. The nutritional indicators of chick feed are crude protein 18%-19%, energy 2900 kcal per kilogram, crude fiber 3%-5%, crude fat 2.5%, calcium 1%-1.1%, phosphorus 0.45%, methionine 0.45%, lysine Acid 1.05%. Feed formula: (1) corn 55.3%, soybean meal 38%, calcium hydrogen phosphate 1.4%, stone powder 1%, salt 0.3%, oil 3%, additives 1%; (2) corn 54.2%, soybean meal 34%, rapeseed meal 5% %, calcium hydrogen phosphate 1.5%, stone powder 1%, salt 0.3%, oil 3%, additives 1%; (3) corn 55.2%, soybean meal 32%, fish meal 2%, rapeseed meal 4%, calcium hydrogen phosphate 1.5%, Stone powder 1%, salt 0.3%, oil 3%, additives 1%. From 11 grams per day at 1 day old to about 248 grams per day at 52 days old, about an increase of 4 to 6 grams per day, feed on time every day, and determine the daily quantity according to different chickens and growth rates.
Within 1 to 7 days of brooding, let the chicks eat freely. The first day requires feeding every 2 hours. Pay attention to feeding less and adding more frequently. Pay attention to the change of temperature in the house and the activities of the chicks at any time. The temperature is suitable, if it is piled up, it means the temperature is too low. In order to keep warm during the brooding period, the ventilation volume should not be too large, but when the gas and disinfection are too strong, ventilation should be strengthened, and ventilation can be carried out when the temperature outside the house is high at noon every day. For 1 to 2 days of brooding, the temperature in the house should be kept above 33°C and the relative humidity should be 70%. 24 hours of light should be used for the first 2 days, and 40-watt incandescent bulbs should be used for lighting.
3 to 4-day-old chicks will lower the temperature in the house to 32 °C from the third day, and keep the relative humidity between 65% and 70%. The chimney and ventilation conditions, to prevent gas poisoning, require feeding every 3 hours, and reduce the light by 1 hour on the third day, and keep it at 23 hours of light time.
Chickens were immunized at 5 days of age by subcutaneous injection of Newcastle disease oil vaccine into the neck. From the 5th day, the temperature in the house was adjusted to 30 ℃ ~ 32 ℃, and the relative humidity was kept at 65%. On the 6th day, when feeding began, it was changed to a chicken feeder tray, and 1/3 of the open feeder tray was replaced every day. Feed 6 times a day, turn off lights for 2 hours at night and maintain 22 hours of light. The net bed area was expanded from day 7 to keep the chick density at 35 per square meter.
From the 8th day to the 14th day, the temperature of the chicken house was lowered to 29°C. On the 9th day, a variety of vitamins were added to the drinking water of the chicks to immunize the chickens. 1 drop of chicken. At the same time, the drinking fountain was replaced on the ninth day, and the drinking fountain for chicks was removed and replaced with a drinking fountain for adult chickens, and the drinking fountain was adjusted to an appropriate height. During this period, attention should be paid to observe the temperature, humidity, and proper ventilation, especially at night, should pay attention to whether there is abnormal breathing sound. From the 8th day, the amount of feed should be rationed regularly. The amount of feed should be flexibly controlled according to the weight of the chicken. Generally, there is no limit to the amount of feed. It is subject to no remainder after eating. Feed 4 to 6 times a day, and on the 13th to 14th day Multivitamins were added to the drinking water, and the chickens were immunized on the 14th day, using Faxinling for drip immunization. Drinkers should be cleaned and multivitamins added to drinking water after immunization. At this time, the area of the net bed should be gradually expanded with the growth rate of the chicken, during which the temperature of the chicken house should be kept at 28°C and the humidity should be 55%.
The third phase
The 15-22-day-old chicks continued to drink vitamin water for a day on the 15th day, and strengthened the ventilation in the house. On the 17th to 18th day, use peracetic acid 0.2% liquid to sterilize the chickens, and on the 19th day, it will be replaced with adult chicken feed. Be careful not to replace all at one time when replacing, it should be replaced in 4 days, that is, use 1/ The 4 adult chicken feed was replaced with the chick feed and mixed and fed until the 4th day when it was all replaced with the adult chicken feed. During this period, the temperature of the chicken house should gradually drop from 28°C on the 15th day to 26°C on the 22nd day, with a drop of 1°C in 2 days, and the humidity should be controlled at 50% to 55%. At the same time, with the growth rate of chickens, the area of the net bed is expanded to keep the stocking density at 10 per square meter, and the height of the drinker is adjusted to meet the needs of chicken growth. At 22 days of age, chickens were immunized with Newcastle disease four strains, and the light time was kept at 22 hours. After 15 days of age, the lighting was changed from 40 watts to 15 watts.
The 23-26-day-old chicks should pay attention to the control of temperature and humidity after immunization. The chickens should be sterilized once at 25 days of age, and super multi-dimensional is added to the drinking water. At 26 days of age, the temperature in the house should be lowered to 25 °C, and the humidity should be reduced. Controlled at 45% to 50%.
27-34-day-old chicks should strengthen daily management and must be ventilated frequently. If the temperature in the chicken house is too high, cooling water curtains and exhaust fans should be used to cool down. During this period, the room temperature should be lowered from 25°C to 23°C, and the humidity should be maintained at 40% to 45%.
From the age of 35 days to the slaughter, it is forbidden to use any drugs when the chickens grow to the age of 35 days. The ventilation in the house should be strengthened, and the temperature of the chicken house should be lowered to 22 °C from the age of 36 days. From 35 days of age to slaughtering, 24 hours of light should be maintained every day in order to increase the feed intake of chickens. At the age of 37 days, the chickens are sterilized once. At the age of 40 days, the temperature of the chicken house is lowered to 21 °C and kept until the slaughter. At the age of 43 days, the last disinfection of the chickens is carried out. Kilogram.
Post time: Oct-18-2022